Write your message
Summer (In Press)                   Back to the articles list | Back to browse issues page

XML Print


1- Infectious Diseases Research Center, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran
2- Urology Department, Medical Faulty, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran
3- General Surgery Department, Medical Faulty, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran
4- Gynecology and Obstetrics Department, Medical Faulty, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran , Nghanbarzadeh@gmail.com
Abstract:   (95 Views)

Background & Objective: Urinary incontinence (UI) is a common disease that affects millions of people throughout their lives. It is reported that UI has a considerable economic burden on patients and communities. The aim of this study was to find out the prevalence of urinary incontinence (UI) and its related factors among women living in Birjand city, Iran.
Materials & Methods: A cross-sectional study from September 2020 to December 2020 was conducted on women 15 to 70 years living in nine areas of Birjand city. Data were gathered by researcher-made questionnaire and in-person interviews about demographic, obstetrics, and UI (stress, urge, and overflow UI) characteristics. Chi-square test was applied to analyze differences between women with and without UI about risk factors.
Results: Of 3028 women (mean age 32.70±11.49 years), 828 (27.3%) reported to have UI. The rate of stress, urge, and mixed UI was 18.1%, 3.4%, and 5.9%, respectively. All types of UI were associated with age, education, BMI, chronic cough / dyspnea, constipation, diabetes mellitus, and smoking.
Conclusion: Women should be continuously educated by health care providers on the risk factors and activities which can reduce their risk for UI. Further studies on women across the country may help decision makers to measure the regional burden of disease and to plan population-level interventions.

     
Systematic Review: Original Research | Subject: General Gynecology and Pelvic Floor,
Received: 2021/02/1 | Accepted: 2021/03/1

References
1. Milsom I, Coyne KS, Nicholson S, Kvasz M, Chen C-I, Wein AJ. Global prevalence and economic burden of urgency urinary incontinence: a systematic review. European urology. 2014;65(1):79-95. [DOI:10.1016/j.eururo.2013.08.031] [PMID]
2. Coyne KS, Wein A, Nicholson S, Kvasz M, Chen C-I, Milsom I. Economic burden of urgency urinary incontinence in the United States: a systematic review. Journal of Managed Care Pharmacy. 2014;20(2):130-40. [DOI:10.18553/jmcp.2014.20.2.130] [PMID]
3. Stewart W, Van Rooyen J, Cundiff G, Abrams P, Herzog A, Corey R, et al. prevalence and burden of overactive bladder in the United States. World journal of urology. 2003;20(6):327-36. [DOI:10.1007/s00345-002-0301-4] [PMID]
4. Diokno AC, Estanol MV, Ibrahim IA, Balasubramaniam M. Prevalence of urinary incontinence in community dwelling men: a cross sectional nationwide epidemiological survey. Int Urol Nephrol. 2007;39(1):129-36. [DOI:10.1007/s11255-006-9127-0] [PMID]
5. Dooley Y, Kenton K, Cao G, Luke A, Durazo-Arvizu R, Kramer H, et al. Urinary incontinence prevalence: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. J Urol. 2008;179(2):656-61. [DOI:10.1016/j.juro.2007.09.081] [PMID]
6. Irwin DE, Kopp ZS, Agatep B, Milsom I, Abrams P. Worldwide prevalence estimates of lower urinary tract symptoms, overactive bladder, urinary incontinence and bladder outlet obstruction. BJU Int. 2011;108(7):1132-8. [DOI:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2010.09993.x] [PMID]
7. Stothers L, Friedman B. Risk factors for the development of stress urinary incontinence in women. Curr Urol Rep. 2011;12(5):363-9. [DOI:10.1007/s11934-011-0215-z] [PMID]
8. Fultz NH, Herzog AR. Self-reported social and emotional impact of urinary incontinence. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2001;49(7):892-9. [DOI:10.1046/j.1532-5415.2001.49179.x] [PMID]
9. Mallah F, Montazeri A, Ghanbari Z, Tavoli A, Haghollahi F, Aziminekoo E. Effect of Urinary Incontinence on Quality of Life among Iranian Women. Journal of Family and Reproductive Health. 2014;8(1):13-9.
10. Ebbesen MH, Hunskaar S, Rortveit G, Hannestad YS. Prevalence, incidence and remission of urinary incontinence in women: longitudinal data from the Norwegian HUNT study (EPINCONT). BMC Urol. 2013;13(1):27. [DOI:10.1186/1471-2490-13-27] [PMID] [PMCID]
11. Peyrat L, Haillot O, Bruyere F, Boutin JM, Bertrand P, Lanson Y. Prevalence and risk factors of urinary incontinence in young and middle-aged women. BJU Int. 2002;89(1):61-6. [DOI:10.1046/j.1464-410X.2002.02546.x] [PMID]
12. Arya LA, Jackson ND, Myers DL, Verma A. Risk of new-onset urinary incontinence after forceps and vacuum delivery in primiparous women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001;185(6):1318-23; discussion 23-4. [DOI:10.1067/mob.2001.120365] [PMID]
13. Haylen BT, Freeman RM, Swift SE, Cosson M, Davila GW, Deprest J, et al. An International Urogynecological Association (IUGA)/International Continence Society (ICS) joint terminology and classification of the complications related directly to the insertion of prostheses (meshes, implants, tapes) and grafts in female pelvic floor surgery. Neurourology and Urodynamics. 2011;30(1):2-12. [DOI:10.1002/nau.21036] [PMID]
14. Abrams P, Cardozo L, Fall M, Griffiths D, Rosier P, Ulmsten U, et al. The standardisation of terminology of lower urinary tract function: report from the Standardisation Sub-committee of the International Continence Society. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002;187(1):116-26. [DOI:10.1067/mob.2002.125704] [PMID]
15. Vinker S, Kaplan B, Nakar S, Samuels G, Shapira G, Kitai E. Urinary incontinence in women: prevalence, characteristics and effect on quality of life. A primary care clinic study. Isr Med Assoc J. 2001;3(9):663-6.
16. Botlero R, Davis SR, Urquhart DM, Bell RJ. Incidence and resolution rates of different types of urinary incontinence in women: findings from a cohort study. J Urol. 2011;185(4):1331-7. [DOI:10.1016/j.juro.2010.11.080] [PMID]
17. Sobhgol SS, Charandabee SM. Related factors of urge, stress, mixed urinary incontinence and overactive bladder in reproductive age women in Tabriz, Iran: a cross-sectional study. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2008;19(3):367-73. [DOI:10.1007/s00192-007-0437-2] [PMID]
18. Ahmadi B, Alimohammadian M, Golestan B, Mahjubi B, Janani L, Mirzaei R. The hidden epidemic of urinary incontinence in women: a population-based study with emphasis on preventive strategies. Int Urogynecol J. 2010;21(4):453-9. [DOI:10.1007/s00192-009-1031-6] [PMID]
19. Eftekhar T, Hajibaratali B, Ramezanzadeh F, Shariat M. Postpartum evaluation of stress urinary incontinence among primiparas. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2006;94(2):114-8. [DOI:10.1016/j.ijgo.2006.04.042] [PMID]
20. Hantoushzadeh S, Javadian P, Shariat M, Salmanian B, Ghazizadeh S, Aghssa M. Stress urinary incontinence: pre-pregnancy history and effects of mode of delivery on its postpartum persistency. Int Urogynecol J. 2011;22(6):651-5. [DOI:10.1007/s00192-010-1335-6] [PMID]
21. Torkestani F, Zafarghandi N, Davati A, Hadavand SH, Garshasbi M. Case-controlled study of the relationship between delivery method and incidence of postpartum urinary incontinence. J Int Med Res. 2009;37(1):214-9. [DOI:10.1177/147323000903700126] [PMID]
22. Bedretdinova D, Fritel X, Panjo H, Ringa V. Prevalence of Female Urinary Incontinence in the General Population According to Different Definitions and Study Designs. Eur Urol. 2016;69(2):256-64. [DOI:10.1016/j.eururo.2015.07.043] [PMID]
23. Press JZ, Klein MC, Kaczorowski J, Liston RM, von Dadelszen P. Does cesarean section reduce postpartum urinary incontinence? A systematic review. Birth. 2007;34(3):228-37. [DOI:10.1111/j.1523-536X.2007.00175.x] [PMID]
24. Connolly TJ, Litman HJ, Tennstedt SL, Link CL, McKinlay JB. The effect of mode of delivery, parity, and birth weight on risk of urinary incontinence. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2007;18(9):1033-42. [DOI:10.1007/s00192-006-0286-4] [PMID]
25. Herbert J. Pregnancy and childbirth: the effects on pelvic floor muscles. Nurs Times. 2009;105(7):38-41.
26. Burgio KL, Borello-France D, Richter HE, Fitzgerald MP, Whitehead W, Handa VL, et al. et al. Risk factors for fecal and urinary incontinence after childbirth: the childbirth and pelvic symptoms study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2007;102(9):1998-2004. [DOI:10.1111/j.1572-0241.2007.01364.x] [PMID]
27. Williams A, Herron-Marx S, Knibb R. The prevalence of enduring postnatal perineal morbidity and its relationship to type of birth and birth risk factors. J Clin Nurs. 2007;16(3):549-61. [DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2006.01593.x] [PMID]
28. Walker GJ, Gunasekera P. Pelvic organ prolapse and incontinence in developing countries: review of prevalence and risk factors. Int Urogynecol J. 2011;22(2):127-35. [DOI:10.1007/s00192-010-1215-0] [PMID]
29. Gamble TL, Du H, Sand PK, Botros SM, Rurak M, Goldberg RP. Urge incontinence: estimating environmental and obstetrical risk factors using an identical twin study. Int Urogynecol J. 2010;21(8):939-46. [DOI:10.1007/s00192-010-1140-2] [PMID]
30. Townsend MK, Danforth KN, Rosner B, Curhan GC, Resnick NM, Grodstein F. Body mass index, weight gain, and incident urinary incontinence in middle-aged women. Obstet Gynecol. 2007;110(2 Pt 1):346-53. [DOI:10.1097/01.AOG.0000270121.15510.57] [PMID]
31. Hunskaar S. A systematic review of overweight and obesity as risk factors and targets for clinical intervention for urinary incontinence in women. Neurourol Urodyn. 2008;27(8):749-57. [DOI:10.1002/nau.20635] [PMID]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA

Send email to the article author


© 2021 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Cancer Research (JOGCR)

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb | Piblisher: Farname Inc.